The artificial intelligence (AI) sensation ChatGPT, and rivals such as BLOOM and Stable Diffusion, are large language models for consumers. ChatGPT has caused particular delight since it first appeared in November. But more specialised AI is already used widely in medical settings, including in radiology, cardiology and ophthalmology. Major developments are in the pipeline. Med-PaLM, developed by DeepMind, the AI firm owned by Alphabet, is another large language model. Its 540bn parameters have been trained on data sets spanning professional medical exams, medical research and consumer health-care queries. Such technology means our societies now need to consider the best ways for doctors and AI to best work together, and how medical roles will change as a consequence.